流体机械

2016, v.44;No.528(06) 41-46+88

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往复式压缩机气阀磨损故障特征提取的研究
Research on Fault Feature Extraction of Valve Abrasion Failure of Reciprocating Compressor

毛伟;
MAO Wei;Sinopec Qingdao LNG Co.,Ltd.;

摘要(Abstract):

气阀磨损是气阀的主要故障之一,可能会造成阀片不能准确、平稳地开启和闭合,引起循环气体温度、压力的变化,造成能量损失,影响到压缩机的效率,因此,对气阀磨损进行故障特征提取及故障诊断十分必要。先通过信号AR功率谱对比了解到故障特征频带为2000~4000Hz,再对信号进行EMD分解,分解得到的IMF以小波包频带能量准则进行判定,即选择2000~4000Hz范围内能量比重较大的IMF进行重构;对重构后的信号再次进行小波包软阈值降噪,降噪后的信号再作两层分解,对频带为22000~4000Hz的小波包系数进行重构,即得到特征频带内降噪后的最终信号。在以上研究基础上,最后建立了表征气阀好坏的时域特征参数—故障综合值。研究结果表明:(1)气阀磨损时,阀片撞击升程限制器和阀座的冲击信号会明显增大,并且在吸气与排气阶段,气流会对阀门产生明显的扰动;(2)故障综合值有利于直观判断气阀的磨损程度,值越大表示磨损越严重。
Valve abrasion failure is one of the main fault of valve,the valve cannot be accurately,smoothly opened and closed,and the circulating gas' s temperature and pressure would be changed,because of abrasion,the efficiency of compressor would be affected and caused energy loss,so it is necessary to extract fault characteristics and diagnose fault of valve abrasion failure. Firstly,it gets that the feature band is 2000 ~ 4000 Hz by comparison of AR spectra,then,decomposed the signal by the method of EMD and secured IMF,IMF would be chosen in the criterion with wavelet packet frequency band energy,it means selecting some IMF which have larger energy proportion within the range of 2000 ~ 4000 Hz to reconstruct. Finally,the reconstructed signal was denoised again by wavelet packet energy soft threshold,afterwards,and the denoised signal was decomposed into two layers,then the wavelet packet coefficients which band is 2000 ~ 4000 Hz have be reconstructed,namely obtained the final denoised signal within the feature frequency bands. On the basis of above,fault comprehensive value of time domain parameters is established to distinguish whether valve is failure or not finally. The study shows:first,when failure occurs,the impact of the valve plate against valve guard and valve seat would increase,meanwhile,during the suction and exhaust period,the valve plate would be disturbed by airflow. Second,fault comprehensive value is beneficial to visually determine the degree of wear,the larger the value means the more serious wear.

关键词(KeyWords): 往复式压缩机;气阀磨损;故障特征;降噪
reciprocating compressor;valve abrasion;failure feature;denoising

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作者(Author): 毛伟;
MAO Wei;Sinopec Qingdao LNG Co.,Ltd.;

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