流体机械

2021, v.49;No.590(08) 71-78+86

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水轮机模式多级水力透平流道结构型式研究
Study on the structure of flow channel of multi-stage hydraulic turbine in water turbine mode

李延频;张利红;张自超;陈德新;
LI Yanpin;ZHANG Lihong;ZHANG Zichao;CHEN Dexin;North China University of Weater Resources and Electric Power;

摘要(Abstract):

针对传统反转泵式水力透平效率低、运行范围窄的缺点,提出一种水轮机模式水力透平设计理念,并基于水力原动机理论,设计出水轮机模式水力透平转轮。同时,为研究开发合适于该模式水力透平的流道,借鉴常规水轮机流道、阶段式多级泵流道以及深井泵式S型流道,设计出适合水轮机模式多级水力透平的18种流道型式。通过CFD数值计算,分析了各方案中过流部件内部流动状态,通过对进水室分析发现:蜗壳式进水室水头损失最小,环形进水室由于其内部流动紊乱,存在脱流和旋涡,水头损失最大,比蜗壳式进水室水头损失高28 m;通过对级间导叶分析发现:新型空间导叶内部流动平稳,水头损失最小,但其轴向尺寸大,不适用于多级水力透平。为优选出一种结构紧凑,水力性能好的水轮机模式水力透平流道,基于模糊数学评判方法,以效率为主要目标,综合考虑流道的结构、尺寸和加工制造因素,全面评价18种流道方案。评价结果表明:采用蜗壳式进水室和同径级间导叶的方案1,其空间尺寸适中,加工制造简单,通过对其性能曲线的分析发现:该方案效率达到80.24%,高效区宽,水头回收性能达到设计要求。
In view of the disadvantages of low efficiency and narrow operating range of traditional reversing pump-mode hydraulic turbine,the design concept of turbine-model hydraulic turbine was proposed,and based on the hydraulic prime mover theory,the turbine-model hydraulic turbine runner was designed.Meanwhile,in order to study and develop the flow channel types suitable for this model,18 types of flow channel suitable for multi-stage hydraulic turbines of the turbine-model were designed by referring to conventional turbine flow channels,multi-stage pump flow channels and S-channels of deep well pump.Through CFD numerical calculation,the internal flow state of flow components in each scheme was analyzed.Through analysis of intake chamber,it is found that the head loss of the volute intake chamber is the smallest,there are detachment and vortices in the annular intake chamber due to its turbulent internal flow,and the head loss is the largest,which is 28 m higher than that in the volute intake chamber.Through analysis of inter-stage guide vanes,it is found that the internal flow of the new type space guide vane is stable,and hydraulic loss is the smallest.But its axial size is big,which is not suitable for multistage hydraulic turbine.In order to obtain a flow channel of hydraulic turbine of water turbine model with compact structure and good hydraulic performance through optimization,based on the fuzzy mathematics evaluation method and by comprehensively considering the structure,size and manufacturing factors of the flow channel,18 flow channel schemes were evaluated comprehensively with efficiency as the main objective.The evaluation results show that the optimum scheme is scheme 1 with the volute inlet chamber and inter-stage guide vane of same diameter.Its space size is moderate and processing and manufacturing is simple.Through the analysis of its performance curve,it is found that the efficiency of this scheme reaches 80.24%,the high efficiency zone is wide,and the head recovery performance meets the design requirements.

关键词(KeyWords): 水轮机模式水力透平;水力原动机理论;多级水力透平;流道型式;模糊数学
turbine-model hydraulic turbine;hydraulic prime mover theory;multi-stage hydraulic turbine;flow channel type;fuzzy mathematics

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基金项目(Foundation): 国家自然科学基金面上项目(51579104);国家自然科学基金项目(51909094)

作者(Author): 李延频;张利红;张自超;陈德新;
LI Yanpin;ZHANG Lihong;ZHANG Zichao;CHEN Dexin;North China University of Weater Resources and Electric Power;

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